The parts of the periodic table (2023)

To betransition elementsotransition metalsthey occupy the short spaces in the middle of the periodic table between group 2A and group 3A. They are also sometimes calledd-lock items, since in this region thed-Orbitals are filled and are also denoted asgroup B elementssince in most column numbering systems of the periodic table the numbers of these groups are followed by the letter B. The transition metals of period 4 are scandium (Sc), titanium (Ti) and vanadium (V ), chromium (Cr ) , manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Period 5 transition metals are yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), technetium (Tc), ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), silver ( Ag ) and cadmium (Cd). Period 6 transition metals are lanthanum (La), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), gold ( Au) and mercury (Hg). The period 7 transition metals are natural actinium (Ac) and the artificial elements ruterfordium (Rf), dubnium (Db), seaborgium (Sg), borium (Bh), hassium (Hs), meitnerium (Mt), darmstadtium ( Ds ), Roentgenium (Rg) and Ununbium (Uub), still unnamed.

The elements following lanthanum (Z=57) and actinium (Z=89) are called lanthanides and actinides, respectively, and are collectively known asinner transition elements.

In the case of transition metals, the fivedOrbitals are complete and elements usually have electron configurations of (norte-1)d1-10 ns2, although there are some exceptions when electrons are shuffled to produce half-full or full.dlower shells. Many of the transition metals can lose two or three electrons and form cations with 2+ or 3+ charges, but there are some that form 1+ charges and others that form much larger charges.

All transition metals in their elemental forms are malleable and ductile (except mercury, which is liquid at room temperature) and are good conductors of heat and electricity. Many of the transition metal ions have distinctive colors associated with them, and many have biological and industrial significance.

Group 3B (3)

Elements in Group 3B (Group 3 in the IUPAC designation) normally have one electronic configuration (norte-1)d1 ns2🇧🇷 In most periodic tables, lanthanum and actinium are considered part of Group 3B, but in others, lanthanum and actinium are considered internal transition elements, leaving lutetium and lawenium in Group 3B. Most of these elements form 3+ charges, although other oxidation states are known.

Scandium(Sc, Z=21)

Scandium is a soft silvery metal. It is named after the Latin word for Scandinavia,Scandinavia.It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 16 ppm, making it the 35th most common element. Occurs in Thortveitite ore [Sc2y2o7] and is present in other minerals in small amounts.

Scandium is lightweight, corrosion-resistant, and even stronger than aluminum, but its rarity makes it expensive to produce. The existence of scandium was predicted by Dimitri Mendeleev from a gap in his periodic table of elements; When scandium was discovered in 1879, its properties were similar to those predicted by Mendeleev. There are few known scandium compounds. scandium iodide, ScI3, is used in mercury vapor lamps to produce light closer to natural sunlight.


Yttrium is a soft, silvery, ductile metal. The name derives from the town of Ytterby, Sweden, where the mineral was first isolated. (The same people also gave their names to the elements ytterbium, erbium, and terbium.) It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 30 ppm, making it the 29th most common element. Occurs in the mineral xenotime [yttrium phosphate, YPO4], monge [(Ce,La,Th,Nd,Y)PO4], Bastnasit [(Ce,La,Y)CO3F] and in traces in other minerals.

Yttrium is used in the phosphors that make the red elements in cathode ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors, and it is also used to make white light emitting diodes (LEDs). Yttrium is also used in some metal alloys. Yttrium is also a component of some "high temperature superconductors", which conduct electricity without resistance at temperatures below 90 K (obtained by immersing the material in liquid nitrogen). The radioactive isotope yttrium-90 is used to treat some types of cancer.

Lantano(La, Z=57)

Lanthanum is a soft, silvery-white, malleable, ductile, and relatively reactive metal. The name derives from the Greek wordlanthanoids, "hide" because the "hidden" element was discovered as an impurity in cerium ores. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 32 ppm, making it the 28th most common element. Occurs in monazite and monazite sand [(Ce,La,Th,Nd,Y)PO4], Bastnasit [(Ce,La,Y)CO3F] and in traces in other minerals.

Lanthanum is used to make electrodes for high intensity carbon arc lamps used in spotlights and movie projectors. Lanthanum salts are used to remove excess phosphate from patients suffering from chronic kidney dysfunction. An alloy of lanthanum and nickel, when ground into a powder, can hold 400 times its own volume of hydrogen gas and is being studied as a possible storage medium in hydrogen-powered vehicles.

The elements that follow lanthanum (atomic numbers 58-71) are known aslanthanide🇧🇷 they are chemically similar to each other and are often found together in various combinations in minerals.


Actinium is a silvery-white radioactive metal that glows blue in the dark. Its name comes from the Greek wordactinos, which means "lightning". It is only found in trace amounts in the Earth's crust and is one of the 10 least abundant elements. It is formed in the decay sequences of radioactive uranium-235. The most stable isotope of actinium is actinium-227, which has a half-life of 22.6 years and decays by beta emission to produce thorium-227.

The elements that follow actinium (atomic numbers 90-103) are known asof the act🇧🇷 these elements are all radioactive and most of them are synthetic.

Group 4B (4)

Elements in Group 4B (Group 4 in the IUPAC designation) normally have one electronic configuration (norte-1)d2 ns2🇧🇷 Most of them form 4+ charges, although other oxidation states are known.

Titan(Ti, Z=22)

Titanium is a hard, strong, silvery metal. The name derives from the Titans of Greek mythology. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 4,400 ppm, making it the ninth most common element. The most common titanium minerals are rutile (TiO2, the eighth most common compound on earth) and ilmenite [FeTiO3].

Titan melts in 1668°C, has a low density (4.51 g/cm3) and is as strong as steel but 45% lighter: making it an ideal metal for use in the aerospace industry. It is used in many applications where strength and lightness are desired, such as aircraft structures and engines, bicycles and golf clubs. Titanium alloyed with aluminum and vanadium forms a metal with a strength-to-weight ratio greater than any other metal.

Titanium resists corrosion because its surface is coated with a thin, hard oxide film that is highly resistant to further chemical attack. Because of this, titanium can be used in many medical devices. Titanium is used in screws that hold broken bones together and in skull plates; it is a component of hip and knee prostheses; and is used in cardiac pacemakers and surgical screws. The tissues are bonded to a layer of titanium oxide on the surface of the metal, which forms when the metal is subjected to a plasma arc that exposes a fresh surface of titanium. Titanium's lack of reactivity also makes it useful for offshore oil platforms and ship parts exposed to seawater.

Titanium dioxide, TiO2, is often used in paintings due to its intense white color. (Since titanium compounds are non-toxic, their use has largely replaced lead in paint.) It is also used in sunscreens to disperse ultraviolet light before it burns the skin. Titanium Tetrachloride, TiCl4, reacts with moisture in the air to form titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, producing a dense white vapour; It is used in smokescreen and skywriting devices.

Zirconium(Zr, Z=40)

Zirconium is a hard, silvery, corrosion-resistant metal. Like titanium, zirconium metal is resistant to corrosion because it easily forms a tough oxide layer. The name derives from the Arabic wordsargun, "gold color". It is very difficult to separate zirconium from hafnium (which is just below zirconium on the periodic table) because the chemical properties of the two elements are very similar. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 190 ppm, making it the 18th most common element. The most common zirconium minerals are zircon gem [ZrSiO4] and baddelets [ZrO2].

Zirconium metal is used in nuclear reactors because it has a very high melting point (1855 °C) and because it does not capture neutrons to form radioactive isotopes. Powered zirconium metal is highly flammable and is used in some military incendiary devices (such as the dragon's breath).

Zirconium oxide or zirconium oxide, ZrO2, melts at 2715 °C and is used in many high-temperature applications such as crucibles, ceramics, and some glasses. "Cubic Zirconia" is a crystalline form of zirconium oxide that is commonly used in jewelry because of its diamond-like appearance due to its cubic crystal structure and high refractive index.

We stayed(Hf, Z=72)

Hafnium is a silvery, corrosion-resistant metal. Like titanium and zirconium, it forms a highly corrosion-resistant oxide layer. The name comes from the Latin name for Copenhagen,hafnia, home of the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, who proposed the arrangement of the outer electrons of the still unknown element. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 3.3 ppm, making it the 45th most common element. Occurs in Hafnon [hafnium silicate, HfSiO4] y Alvit [(Hf, Th, Zr) SiO4] and is obtained as a by-product of zirconium refining.

Hafnium is chemically very similar to zirconium (see above) and is often present as an impurity in zirconium metals. One reason for their chemical similarity is that they are almost the same size: zirconium has an atomic radius of 160 pm, while hafnium has a radius of 159 pm. Hafnium is used in nuclear power plant control rods for its ability to absorb thermal neutrons. It is also used in alloys with other metals and in some ceramics.

Some hafnium compounds have the highest melting points of any binary compound: hafnium carbide, HfC, melts at 3890 °C and hafnium nitride, HfN, melts at 3395 °C.

Rutherfordio(Rf, Z=104).

Rutherfordium is a synthetic element formed by bombarding californium-249 with carbon-12 or curium-248 with oxygen-18. The longest-lived isotope, rutherfordium-261, has a half-life of 65 seconds, so it's highly doubtful that we can build anything from rutherfordium. The element is named after physicist Ernest Rutherford. Due to a priority dispute between researchers at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (then in the USSR) and the University of California, Berkeley (USA), this element remained unnamed for a long time; The name "Rutherfordium" was finally approved by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 1997.

Group 5B (5)

Elements in Group 5B (Group 5 in the IUPAC designation) normally have an electron configuration of (norte-1)d3 ns2.


Vanadium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal. Like many transition metals, the metal is resistant to corrosion because it forms a strong oxide layer; however, it oxidizes more easily at high temperatures. It is named after the Scandinavian goddess of beauty Vanadis (Freya in Norse mythology) due to the variety of colored salts it forms. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 160 ppm, making it the 19th most common element. The most important vanadium minerals are vanadite [lead chloride vanadate, Pb5(VO4)3Cl], Patronit [vanadium sulfide, VS4] and carnotite [potassium uranyl vanadate, K2(UO2)2(VO4)23H2ANY]. It is usually obtained as a by-product of processing other minerals.

One of the most common uses of metallic vanadium is in alloys with iron, known asFerrovanadium, a strong, relatively light, impact-resistant and highly corrosion-resistant metal. It is used in springs, high-speed tools, surgical instruments, gears and crankshafts, and armatures. Traces of vanadium are also present in Damascus steel, prized for its hardness and ability to stay sharp. When alloyed with aluminum and titanium, it is used in jet engines and airframes.

Vanadium forms several different cations (2+, 3+, 4+ and 5+) and can be found in a large number of compounds.

Vanadium is part of some enzymes. In some species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, the iron-sulfur nitrogenase protein responsible for nitrogen "fixation" (its reduction of N2zu SMALL3) contains a vanadium ion instead of the more typical molybdenum ion.

niobio(number, Z=41)

Niobium is a gray, shiny, soft and ductile metal. It is named after the Greek mythological figure Niobe, daughter of Tantalus, due to niobium's resemblance to tantalum (see below). It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 20 ppm, making it the 33rd most common element. It is found in the minerals columbite [(Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2o6], pyrochlore [(Na,Ca)2NB2o6(OH,F)] and Euxenite [(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2o6🇧🇷 Tantalum is commonly found in trace amounts in Nioberz.

(Video) Parts of the Periodic Table

Niobium is used in some stainless steel alloys, arc welding rods, aircraft alloys, surgical implants, jewelry, and some types of glass.

attempted(Ta, Z=73)

Tantalum is a hard gray metal with a melting point of 3017°C and is highly resistant to corrosion. It is named after a character in Greek mythology, Tantalus (father of Niobe). Tantalus killed his son Pelops and served the gods at a feast; The gods weren't amused and punished Tantalus in Hades by forcing them to stand in a pool of water surrounded by trees laden with fruit, but every time he bent down to drink the water it ran away from him and every time he reached for the fruit. , the branches were removed. out of reach, leaving you thirsty and hungry forever. (This is also the derivation of the word "torment".) Titanium was difficult to isolate from the chemically similar niobium (see above), and it took some time before the elusive "tempting" element could be isolated in pure form. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 2 ppm, making it the 51st most common element. The main minerals of tantalum are tantalite [(Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2o6, called columbite when there is more niobium than tantalum], samarskite [(Y,Ce,U,Fe)3(Nb, Ta, Ti)5osixteen] and euxenite [(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2o6].

Tantalum is used in some medical implants, such as B. pins for broken bones and in coatings to replace damaged skull bones. It is also used in surgical and dental tools, in electronic capacitors, and in some turbine blades and rocket nozzles.

Tantalum Carbide, TaC, is an extremely hard material and is used in some cutting tools. A composite of tantalum carbide and graphite was prepared at Los Alamos National Laboratory and is one of the hardest materials known, with a melting point of 3738°C.

I don't know(BD, Z=105).

Dubnium is a synthetic element formed by bombarding californium-249 with nitrogen-15 or berkelium-249 with oxygen-18. The longest-lived isotope, dubnium-262, has a half-life of 34 seconds. The status of early claims for the production of this element has also been questioned (see section on rutherfordium) and it was known for a while as neilsbohrium (Ns), the name proposed by the Russian group at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, and as hahnium (Ha) proposed by the team at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1997, the IPUAC credited both groups with discovering element 105, which was named dubnium in honor of the city of Dubna, where the JINR is located.

Group 6B (6)

Elements in Group 6B (Group 6 in the IUPAC designation) normally have the electron configuration (norte-1)d5 ns1, instead of the expected (norte-1)d4 ns2. whetherdThe orbitals are one electron away from being half full (that is, having one electron in each of the fivedorbitals), onesThe electron can move towards thedOrbitals to make a filled medium more stabled-Orbital configuration.

chrome(Cr, Z=24)

Chrome is a steel gray hard metal that can be polished to a mirror finish. Like many other transition metals, it forms a thin oxide layer (chromium oxide or chromium(III) oxide), Cr2o3), which protects the underlying metal from further oxidation. The name derives from the Greek word for color,chroma, due to the wide variety of colored salts it produces. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 100 ppm, making it the 21st most common element. It is made from the mineral chromite [FeO Cr2o3].

Chromium is used in spring steel, chrome-nickel steel, stainless steel (up to 15% chromium), iron-nickel-chromium alloys and metal-ceramics. It is also used to galvanize metal objects to give them a shiny, corrosion-resistant coating; This chrome is widely used in automobiles.

In its compounds, chromium occurs in the +2, +3 and +6 oxidation states, with the +3 oxidation state being the most stable and abundant. Cr salts6+(also known as hexavalent chromium) are strong oxidizing, toxic and carcinogenic agents. Chromium salts can form a variety of colors in solution, from orange (Cr6+in acidic solution), violet (Cr3+in basic solution), green (Cr3+in basic solution) and blue (Cr2+in acidic solution).

Chromium(III) oxide u chromium oxide, Cr2o3, is the ninth most abundant compound in the Earth's crust (1800 ppm). Chromite ore resists high temperatures and is used to make some refractory bricks (sponge stones) used to line ovens and stoves.

Chromium compounds are also found in various dyes and inks, such as lead(II) chromate, PbCrO4, also known as chromium yellow and chromium(III) oxide, Cr2o3, also known as chromium green or chromium oxide green. Chromium salts are also used in some types of colored glass.

Chromium salts are also responsible for the color of some gemstones. Emeralds are varieties of beryl [Be3Alabama2(SiO3)6] containing traces of Cr3+, giving them a green color. Rubies consist mainly of corundum (aluminum oxide, Al2o3🇧🇷 Traces of chrome give the stones a red color. The red light produced in ruby ​​lasers is the result of excitation of chromium atoms. Chromium also provides the gemstone alexandrite, a variety of the mineral chrysoberyl (BeAl2o4).

Small amounts of chromium, the trivalent form of chromium, Cr3+They are necessary in the diet. Chromium assists in glucose metabolism, but its exact function is not well understood. Chromium deficiency causes mild diabetes and reduced cholesterol levels; This condition is rare in developed countries. There are a variety of foods rich in chromium, such as brewer's yeast, wine, corn oil, whole grains, egg yolks, calf's liver, peanuts, black pepper and oysters; small amounts are also found in potatoes, beans, carrots and apples.

potassium dichromate, K2kr2o7, is a strong oxidant (since chromium is in the +6 oxidation state) and is used to remove traces of organic materials from laboratory glassware; It is also used as a mordant to fix dyes in fabrics. chromium sulfate, Cr2(AS SOON AS4)3, used in leather tanning. Chromium(VI) oxide, CrO3, is used on magnetic tapes such as B. Used Type II audio cassette tapes.

Chromium salts also serve as the basis for the "breathalyzer test" to detect the presence of alcohol. ethanol (ethyl alcohol), CH3CH2OH, is oxidized by chromium salts such as potassium dichromate to produce acetic acid, CH3CO2H. Chromium is reduced from the orange-red +6 oxidation state to the green +3 oxidation state. When this color change occurs in the test solution, it indicates the presence of alcohol in the breath.

molybdenum(Lun, Z=42)

Molybdenum is a lustrous, silvery-white, relatively soft metal with a very high melting point (2623°C). It gets its name from the Greek wordmolybdenum, meaning "lead", because of its similarity to lead. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 1.5 ppm, making it the 54th most common element. Occurs in molybdenite minerals [molybdenum sulfide, MoS2], which is very similar to graphite (in fact, molybdenite and graphite were used to make "lead" pencils), and wulfenite [lead molybdate, PbMoO4].

Molybdenum is commonly used in alloys with other metals, such as high-temperature steels, and is used to make engine parts, pipelines, aircraft parts, and armor.

Molybdenum atoms are present in the iron-sulfur protein nitrogenase found in the root nodules of legumes (such as beans, alfalfa, clover, etc.) found in rhizobia bacteria, which convert nitrogen from the air (in the form of relatively unreactive N).2) em Ammoniak, New Hampshire3🇧🇷 Mammals also use molybdenum-containing enzymes to convert nitrogenous wastes into uric acid.


Tungsten is a lead gray or white hard metal with a melting point of 3422°C, the highest of any pure metal. Very pure tungsten is relatively easy to cut, but becomes much harder and brittle when mixed with impurities. Like many other transition metals, it is highly resistant to corrosion. The name comes from the Swedish expressionat night, which means "heavy stone". The element symbol, W, comes from the German word for element,tungsten("Tierra de lobo", so called because of its presence as an impurity in tin extraction); Instead of tungsten, the name tungsten is sometimes used for the element. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 1 ppm, making it the 58th most common element. Occurs in wolframite ores [(Fe,Mn)WO4], Scheels [Kalziumtungstate, CaWO4], verberita [tungstato de ferro (II), FeWO4] and hubnerite [manganese (II) tungstate), MnWO4].

Tungsten's high melting point and low vapor pressure allow it to be used as a filament in light bulbs. It is used to make electrodes for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) applications. High speed steel (HSS) contains iron alloy with up to 18% tungsten (in addition to other metals such as molybdenum, vanadium and cobalt); These alloys can withstand higher temperatures than carbon steels and allow machine tools such as drills and saw blades to run at higher speeds. The high density of tungsten (19.25 g cm-3) makes it useful for making weights, ballasts, heat sinks, and arrows.

In its compounds, tungsten is most commonly found in the +6 oxidation state, but it also occurs in the +2, +3, +4, and +5 oxidation states. Tungsten carbide, WC, is one of the hardest substances known and is used in the manufacture of cutting tools, dental drills, rock mining drills and abrasives.

seaborgio(Sg, Z=106).

Seaborgium is a synthetic element formed by bombarding californium-249 with oxygen-18. The longest-lived isotope, seaborgium-266, has a half-life of 27.3 seconds. JINR scientists claimed to have produced element 106 in 1974, but the result could not be confirmed. Albert Ghiorso of the University of California, Berkeley, produced element 106 that same year and confirmed the result in 1993, taking credit for the discovery. Ghiorso suggested the name "Seaborgium" for the element in honor of Glenn T. Seaborg, who discovered/synthesized several transuranic elements. The IUPAC rejected the name on the grounds that it was inappropriate to name an element after a living scientist.* However, the American Chemical Society voted to approve the name of the element seaborgium in 1995. After some negotiations, this was hotly debated. 104 to 109 were ratified by IUPAC in 1997, and element 106 was officially designated seaborgium. Glenn Seaborg died in 1999.

* In fact, there were precedents for naming elements after living scientists: element 99 was named Einsteinium in 1952, and element 100 was named Fermium in 1953, while Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi were still alive. As the existence of these items were "nuclear secrets" during the Cold War (they were discovered in the wreckage of nuclear tests), the existence of these items was not made public until some time later.

Group 7B (7)

Elements in Group 7B (Group 7 in the IUPAC designation) normally have the electron configuration (norte-1)d5 ns2.

mango(Mn, Z=25)

Manganese is a hard, whitish metal, very brittle and very reactive. It is named after the Latin word for "magnet".Magnetic, as it can become ferromagnetic with proper treatment. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 1000 ppm, making it the twelfth most common element. Its minerals include pyrolucite [manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2], rhodochrosite [manganese(II) carbonate, MnCO3] and manganite [MnO(OH)]. Additionally, manganese-rich nodules are scattered across much of the sea floor, but there is no practical way to collect them.

Manganese is used in alloys with steel to improve strength and wear resistance. Manganese steels are extremely strong and are used in railways, earthmoving machinery and other applications.

In compounds, the most common oxidation states of manganese are +2, +3, +4, +6, and +7. Manganese(II) oxide, MnO, is the tenth most common compound in the Earth's crust (1400 ppm). Potassium permanganate, KMnO4, is a deep purple crystalline substance when pure and forms purple solutions when dissolved in water; It is a strong oxidizing agent and is used in bleaches, disinfectants, deodorants and as a reagent for some reactions in organic chemistry. Traces of manganese give amethysts, which are mainly composed of silicon dioxide, their characteristic purple color.

Manganese is also an essential nutrient and is involved in the action of vitamin B1 (thiamine) on carbohydrate metabolism. Nuts and cereals are relatively high in manganese.

technician(Tc, Z=43)

Technetium is a radioactive element; The pure metal has a silvery-grey appearance, although it is normally used as a gray powder. It gets its name from the Greek wordtechnician, which means "artificial" because it was the first item to be made artificially. Traces of technetium are found in uranium ores, where it is produced by the spontaneous fission of uranium-238, but the element is not present in sufficient quantities to be practically degradable (the concentration is estimated to be about 1 nanogram per kilogram of ore). 🇧🇷 🇧🇷 It is also obtained from uranium-235 fuel rods used in nuclear reactors.

Technetium is produced by neutron bombardment of molybdenum-98 to produce molybdenum-99, which then undergoes beta decay with a half-life of 67 hours to produce technetium-99m, a metastable nuclear excited state with a half-life of 6 hours. 🇧🇷 which emits gamma rays to form technetium-99 in the ground state. Technetium-99 is also radioactive and is a beta particle emitter with a half-life of 211,000 years.

There are approximately 56 isotopes of technetium (including metastable states) and all are radioactive. The longest-lived isotope, technetium-98, has a half-life of 4.2 million years. That may seem long, but compared to the age of the Earth, 4.5 billion years, that's a long time for any technetium that was originally in the Earth's crust to decay. In 1952, traces of technetium were discovered in the spectrum of some types of red giant stars; This was some of the first evidence supporting the theory that heavy elements were being produced in stars.

The existence of technetium was predicted from the gap in the periodic table between the elements molybdenum (Z=42) and ruthenium (Z=44), but element 43 turned out to be extremely elusive. Many of the early reports of its discovery turned out to be incorrect, being instead impure samples of other known elements. The element was finally discovered in 1937 by Emilio Segre and Carlo Perrier at the University of Palermo, Italy, in a sample of molybdenum-96 that had been bombarded with deuterium (hydrogen-2) to form technetium-97. The element may have been discovered as early as 1925 by Walter Noddack, Otto Berg and Ida Tacke, who bombarded a sample of columbite [(Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta).2o6] with an electron beam and reported an X-ray signal they believed to be element 43, which they named "Masurium" after Masuria in East Prussia (now part of Poland). However, his results could not be reproduced and his claim was not accepted; Recent research suggests that they may, in fact, have been able to create very small amounts of element 43 using this method.

Technetium is used in various nuclear medicine applications as a radioactive tracer because it emits gamma rays that are detectable by imaging equipment. It is obtained from atechnetium-99m generator, also known as "technetium cow", in which radioactive molybdenum-99 (with a half-life of 67 hours) is adsorbed onto an alumina chromatography column; molybdenum-99 breaks down to water-soluble technetium-99m, which is removed from the column by running a saline solution through it (the process is, of course, called "milking"), after which it can be mixed with the appropriate reagent to the specific imaging technology to be used. At theimmunoscintigraphy, radioactive technetium-99m is incorporated into a monoclonal antibody that binds to cancer cells; This technique is used to detect colorectal cancer, which is difficult to find with other techniques. When combined with tin compounds, technetium-99m binds to red blood cells and can be used to map the circulatory system; This is particularly useful in diagnosing some types of congestive heart failure and in determining damage to the heart muscle caused by a heart attack.

Ammonium Pertechnate, NH4total cost of ownership4and other technetium salts can be used as corrosion inhibitors for steel, but due to technetium's radioactivity, this is only useful in closed systems.


(Video) Parts of the Periodic Table

Rhenium is a silvery white hard metal. It is corrosion resistant but slowly darkens in humid air. At 3,186 °C, it has the third highest melting point of all elements; it is also one of the highest densities at 21.02 g/cm3🇧🇷 Named for the Latin word for Rhine,Rin🇧🇷 It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 0.5 ppb, making it the 77th most common element. It occurs as an impurity in molybdenite, copper sulfide and other minerals.

Rhenium is used in alloys with tungsten and molybdenum to make filaments for stoves and lamps, and is also used to electroplate jewelry. It is also used in combination with platinum to make catalysts for producing high-octane gasoline from crude oil.

Rhenium was discovered in 1925 by Walter Noddack, Otto Berg and Ida Tacke as a trace element in columbite, gadolinite, molybdenite and platinum minerals. It was the last of the natural elements to be discovered, in part because of its extremely low concentration in the Earth's crust and because it is not concentrated in isolated minerals or ores.

bohrio(Bh, Z = 107).

Bohrium is a synthetic element formed by the cold fusion of bismuth-209 and chromium-54. The longest-lived isotope, bohrium-262, has a half-life of 0.1 seconds. As with some of the transfermium elements in the periodic table, there was some controversy over the original discovery of element 107, in this case between Labor für Schwerionenforschung (GSI, Gesellschaft fyour heavy ion research) in Darmstadt, Germany, and the JINR in Dubna. The IUPAC concluded that the GSI group should be given credit for the discovery, but the two groups were allowed to collaborate on choosing a name for the element. They chose "neilsbohrium" after the Danish physicist Niels Bohr; This was shortened to "Bohrium" in 1997.

Group 8B (8, 9, 10)

Group 8B elements are called Groups 8, 9, and 10 in IUPAC notation. Elements in each period of these groups are very similar in their chemical and physical properties. Group 8 elements usually have the electronic configuration (norte-1)d6 ns2, group 9 elements usually have the electronic configuration (norte-1)d7 ns2, and group 10 elements usually have the electron configuration (norte-1)d8 ns2.

Eisen(Fe, Z=26)

Iron in its pure form is a malleable, ductile, silvery metal. The name comes from the Anglo-Saxon word for metal,Type🇧🇷 the chemical symbol "Fe" is derived from the Latin word for iron,Eisen🇧🇷 It is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust with a concentration of about 4.1 percent by mass. The most common minerals are hematite [ferric oxide, Fe2o3], magnetite [Fe3o4, actually a mixture of Faith2o3and ferrous oxide, FeO], goethite and lepidocrocite [ferric oxide hydroxide, FeO(OH)] and siderite [ferrous carbonate, FeCO3].

Iron compounds are very common: ferrous oxide, or iron oxide, FeO, is the third most common compound in the earth's crust with a concentration of 89,700 ppm, and ferric oxide, or iron oxide, Fe2o3, is the seventh most common compound with a concentration of 3600 ppm. About 7,000 kilometers in diameter, the Earth's core is 80% iron, along with nickel and other metals, although it is somewhat more inaccessible than the crust's iron ore (except inreally bad sci-fi movies🇧🇷 According to the dynamo theory, convection currents in the molten iron and nickel of the outer core create the Earth's magnetic field. Iron-56 is the end product of nuclear fusion in medium-sized stars like the Sun; Iron fusion requires an input of energy, and these stars accumulate iron in their centers as their nuclear fuel is used up.

Iron was used by humans at least until 3500 BC. It was mostly used for ceremonial purposes as it was difficult to preserve in its pure form. Iron used in this way was usually obtained from meteorites. Smelting processing of iron from its ores began around 1500 BC. discovered in Asia Minor. Iron ore from magnesia in Lydia, Asia Minor, has been found to attract other pieces of iron; This mineral was called "magnetite" and the attractive pieces of metal were called "magnets" after their country of origin.

Iron is obtained from its ores by smelting it in ahigh ovenwith coke, a low-ash carbonaceous residue from bituminous coal and limestone (calcium carbonate, CaCO3), which is used as a flux to melt impurities in the ore. The product of this process is "pig iron" which contains 3-5% carbon and other impurities. This is refined to produce pure iron or an alloy. Pure iron is a very soft metal and corrodes easily and is often alloyed with other metals to improve its strength and durability.Stahlis iron containing between 0.3% and 1.7% carbon; the resulting metal is much less brittle and more corrosion resistant than pure iron; Steel is the most used metal in construction.cast ironit contains 3-5% carbon and, although it is not as hard as steel, it is much cheaper. These steels can be alloyed with other metals such as nickel, tungsten, vanadium and manganese to produce extremely durable materials. Stainless steel contains up to 18% chromium and 8% nickel and is very useful in cookware.

Many of the transition metals oxidize to form metal oxides that adhere strongly to exposed metal and protect the metal surface from further oxidation. However, when iron oxidizes, iron oxide Fe is formed.2o3that is generated lifts off the surface of the metal, exposing more metal to further oxidation. The reaction for the oxidation of iron is commonly written as 4Fe+ 3O2®2Fe2o3, but the actual chemistry is much more complicated, as water must also be present for the reaction to take place. Ferrous metal is converted to Fe2+in some places on exposed metal, as a result of exposure to oxygen in the air dissolved in water droplets on the surface. The fairy2+dissolves in the water droplet and is further oxidized to Fe by oxygen3+🇧🇷 Oxygen is reduced to water by the electrons released from the oxidation of iron, since the conductive metal readily transports electrons. The water droplets act as an electrolyte solution, completing the electrical circuit between where the iron oxidizes and leaks from the metal surface and where it precipitates out as insoluble reddish-brown flakes of Fe.2o3·H2Or better known asrosa🇧🇷 Rust can be removed from iron by "pickling" with an acid: rinsing the metal surface with an acid, e.g. B. hydrochloric acid, Fe dissolves3+ions, allowing them to be eliminated.

The longevity of iron can be extended by coating it with zinc to create it.galvanized steel🇧🇷 Zinc rusts more easily than iron, so in conditions where a metal can rust, zinc will rust instead of iron. Galvanized iron is used in auto parts, outdoor fencing and other applications. The same idea is explored inlata, in which an iron sheet is coated with a thin layer of tin. This is used in making cans. This type of protection is known ascathodic protection, since iron acts as the cathode where reduction takes place, then any Fe2+o fe3+that is in the process of formation is immediately reduced by the electrons from the oxidation of zinc or tin (which act as anodes). In many cases it is not necessary to cover the entire surface of the iron with another metal; Instead, the iron is placed in electrical contact with a "sacrificial anode" made of a metal that oxidizes easily, such as magnesium, zinc, or aluminum. This process is used to protect underground steel pipes, ship hulls and propellers, and water heaters. These metal anodes are generally designed to be easily replaceable so that when they are depleted (i.e. "sacrificed") they can be replaced with a new metal sample to continue to protect the iron.

The most common oxidation states of iron are Fe2+, to dieEisenoferrous ion, e fe3+, to dieEisenoferric ion🇧🇷 Iron can also exist in the -2, -1, 0, +1, +4, and +6 states. Iron(III) oxides are used in the manufacture of magnetic storage media. iron pyrite, FeS2, [Iron disulfide or iron (II) sulfide (actually Fe2+combined with a disulfide anion, S22-)] is also known as "fool's gold" because its yellow color makes it look very similar to gold.









A "ferrous" wheel

Iron is an essential nutrient for almost all living organisms. Of the 4 grams of iron in the average adult human, about 65% is incorporated into the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the bloodstream from the lungs to the cells. The hemoglobin protein is made up of four subunits, each of which contains a molecule calledAll, a porphyrin ring that binds to iron in the +2 oxidation state; The oxygen molecules "stick" to the iron ion, allowing oxygen to be transported from the lungs to the various tissues of the body. Iron is also involved in the function of many of the body's enzymes, including those that synthesize DNA and those that metabolize carbohydrates. Iron also binds to the protein transferrin, which transports iron between different cells in the body; it also acts as an antibiotic, preventing the absorption of iron by invading bacteria. Iron is easily found in the diet in foods such as red meat, fish, poultry, liver, breakfast cereals, wine, lentils, beans, peas, green leafy vegetables, tofu, peanut butter, raisins, bread and eggs. Despite the dietary recommendations of the "Popeye" cartoon, spinach is not really a good source of iron, although it contains 2.7 mg per 100 g of spinach leaves, the oxalate ions (C2o42-), also found in spinach, binds iron tightly, reducing the amount your body can extract.

Cobalt(Co, Z=27)

Cobalt is a hard, shiny, blue-grey metal. It is named after the German word for "kobold",kobold, due to toxic arsenic fumes created when silver miners heated enamel ore, CoAs2, to confuse it with silver ore. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 20 ppm, making it the 32nd most common element. Cobalt is found in the minerals cobaltite [(Co,Fe)AsS] and erythritol [cobalt(III) arsenate, Co3(Furthermore4)2], although it is most commonly mined as a by-product of nickel and copper mining.

Cobalt has been used since ancient Egyptian times to create deep blue colors in glass and ceramics. Today, cobalt is used in many types of alloys, ceramics, stained glass (known as cobalt glass), magnets and magnetic recording media. Cobalt is not as magnetic as iron, but it retains its magnetic properties at higher temperatures than iron; It is alloyed with aluminum and nickel to produce strong, permanent alnico magnets.

Radioactive cobalt-60 is produced by bombarding cobalt-59 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Cobalt-60 has a half-life of 5.3 years, undergoes beta decay to produce nickel-60, and in doing so emits gamma rays. Cobalt-60 is used as a radiation source in some medical devices and also to irradiate food and detect structural defects in metals.

Cobalt normally forms +2 and +3 ions in its compounds. co salts2+due to the formation of the complex ion [Co(OH2)6]2+🇧🇷 The replacement of hydroxide by chloride anions forms the blue complex [CoCl4]2-.

Cobalt is essential in the diet as it is incorporated into vitamin B12(cyanocobalamin), necessary for the prevention of pernicious anemia.

Nickel(Ni, Z=28)

Nickel is a silvery, hard and malleable metal. The name derives from the German wordkupfernickel, which means "old Nick's copper" (i.e. devil's copper or fake copper) because it was commonly confused with copper. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 80 ppm, making it the 23rd most common element. Occurs in minerals millerite [nickel sulfide, NiS], pentlandite [(Fe,Ni)9S8], nickelline [nickel arsenate, NiAs], nickel-containing limonite [(Fe,Ni)O(OH)] and garnierite [(Ni,Mg)3y2o5(OH)]. About 10% of the Earth's core is also made up of nickel.

It is widely used in coins due to its high resistance to oxidation. The "nickel", the American five cent coin, is composed of 25% nickel and 75% copper.

Nickel is used in alloys and not as a pure metal. Pure nickel is ferromagnetic and is used in some permanent magnets, such as B. Alnico magnets, which consist of an alloy of aluminum, nickel, and cobalt. Stainless steel is an alloy of iron and chromium that contains approximately 8% nickel. Invar ("immutable") is an alloy of 64% iron and 36% nickel that does not expand when heated. Nichrome is an alloy of nickel and chromium (11 to 22%) that is stable at high temperatures and is used in heating elements in ovens and toasters. Monel is a 70% nickel, 30% copper alloy that does not corrode in seawater and is used in ship propeller shafts. Platinum is an alloy of 46% nickel and 54% iron and is used in light bulbs. Nickel aluminide, Ni3Al, is an unusual alloy that is six times stronger than stainless steel and becomes stronger at higher temperatures, making it a potential use in rocket engines. Nitinol, (acronym for Nickel Titanium, Naval Ordnance Laboratories, where this alloy was developed) is an alloy of 55% nickel and 45% titanium that is a "shape memory alloy" that has the ability to deform and recover its previous form. 🇧🇷 This makes it ideal for use in eyeglass frames and braces.

Nickel powder or Raney nickel (an alloy of nickel and aluminum) are used as catalysts for the productionhydrogenated oils, in which unsaturated fats, which contain carbon-carbon double bonds and tend to be liquid at room temperature, react with hydrogen gas to produce saturated fats, which contain only carbon-carbon single bonds and tend to be solid at room temperature. Hydrogen and unsaturated fats adsorb onto the metal surface, easily weakening the hydrogen-hydrogen bonds and the carbon-carbon double bond; When hydrogen "bumps" into the weakened bond, hydrogens add to the carbon-carbon double bond, creating a single bond, and the saturated product pulls away from the metal surface, leaving it free to react with more reactants. This process is used in the manufacture of shortening from vegetable oils and in the manufacture of margarines and other spreads.

In its compounds, nickel is most commonly found in the +2 oxidation state [the nickel(II) ion or "nickel-containing" ion], although +1, +3, and +4 states also exist.

Nickel-cadmium (NiCad or NiCd) batteries use nickel hydroxide, NiO(OH), at the cathode (the positive electrode) and metallic cadmium at the anode. As the battery discharges, nickel is reduced from the +3 oxidation state to the +2 oxidation state, and cadmium is oxidized to the +2 oxidation state. The battery can be recharged using an external power source to run the reactions in reverse, allowing the battery to be reused.

rutting(Ru, Z=44)

Ruthenium is an extremely brittle and stable silvery gray metal. Named for the Latin word for Russia,ruthenian🇧🇷 It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 1 ppb, making it the 74th most common element. Occurs in laurite ores [ruthenium sulfide, RuS2], ruarsite [arsenic ruthenium sulfide, RuAsS] and ruthenic arsenite [(Ru,Ni)As], although it is usually obtained as a by-product in nickel and platinum refining.

Ruthenium is used in the electronics industry in some electrical contacts and chip resistors. It is also used in the anodes used to produce chlorine in electrolytic cells. It is also used in alloys with platinum and palladium in jewelry to strengthen metals.

we were born(Rh, Z=45)

Rhodium is a hard, inert, silvery metal. It is named after the Greek word for rose,time, for its red salts. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 0.2 ppb, making it the 78th most common element. Occurs in some areas as free metal and in the mineral rodplumsite [(Rh3Pb2S2)] and is also found in some platinum ores.

(Video) Periodic Table Explained: Introduction

Rhodium is used as part of the catalytic converter in automotive catalytic converters that reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. It is also used to make reflective surfaces for fiber optics and lighthouses, as a platinum and palladium hardener, and is electroplated over white gold to make jewelry called flash rhodium. It is also used in some high temperature crucibles due to its reactivity and high melting point (1964 °C).

Palladium(Pd, Z=46)

Palladium is a soft, malleable and ductile silvery white metal. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 0.6 ppb, making it the 76th most common element. It is named after the asteroid Pallas, which was discovered in the same year the metal was first isolated (1802). Palladium is occasionally found as a free metal and also in the minerals stibiopalladinite [palladium antimonide, Pd5Sb2] and braggite [(Pd,Pt,Ni)S], but is most commonly recovered as a by-product of copper, silver and gold mining.

Palladium is used in catalytic converters, dental fillings, jewelry (when mixed with gold, called white gold), the mainsprings of analogue watches, and ceramic capacitors used in many electronic devices. Palladium(II) chloride, PdCl2, used in instruments for the detection of carbon monoxide.

Palladium can absorb up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen gas, potentially forming palladium hydride, PdH.2, included.

osmio(hey, Z=76)

Osmium is a hard, lustrous, bluish-gray or bluish-black metal. Its name derives from the Greek word for smell,comprar, due to its bad smell (actually caused by osmium tetroxide). It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 0.1 ppb, making it the 79th most common element. It occurs as a free metal and in iridosmine and osmiridium, alloys of osmium and iridium that may also contain traces of platinum and rhodium. Osmium is also found in some platinum ores and is commercially recovered as a by-product of nickel refining.

At 22.588 g/cm, osmium is the densest known metal.3, although iridium is a very close competitor to 22.562 g/cm3🇧🇷 Osmium is not very reactive, but the powdered form reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form osmium tetroxide, OsO.4, which is toxic and has an unpleasant odor of ozone.

Osmium is used in some alloys to minimize frictional wear and is also used in electrical switch contacts, some ballpoint pens and fountain pens, and phonograph nibs (a use that is rapidly decreasing!).

In organic synthesis, osmium tetroxide is used to produce vicinal diols (with two OH groups on adjacent carbons) from alkenes (molecules with carbon-carbon double bonds). As osmium reagents are very expensive, the reaction is usually carried out with an oxidizing agent in the same reaction vessel, which oxidizes the osmium reagent back to osmium tetroxide, allowing its use in catalytic rather than stoichiometric amounts.

irídio(Ir, Z=77)

Iridium is a hard, brittle, silvery-white metal. It is named after the Latin word for "rainbow".Iris, for the colorful connections it makes. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 3 ppt, making it the 82nd most common element. It is found as the free metal and in iridosmine and osmiridium, alloys of iridium and osmium, which may also contain traces of platinum and rhodium. Most iridium is obtained as a by-product of platinum refining.

At 22.562 g/cm, iridium is the second densest known metal.3, not far from osmium with 22.588 g/cm3🇧🇷 It is the most corrosion resistant of all known metals, even resistant to aqua regia. It is extremely rare and has an Earth crust concentration of 3 ppt.

Iridium is used as an alloying agent to harden platinum, in fountain pen tips and compasses, in automobile spark plug tips, in electrodes in the chlor-alkali process.

Iridium also provided crucial evidence for the event that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Geologists discovered that the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary (the K-T boundary) was enriched with iridium. Outstanding geologist Walter Alvarez hypothesized that, given that asteroids are rich in iridium, a large asteroid could hit Earth 65 million years ago and cause severe climate changes that led to the extinction of dinosaurs and many other forms of life. Evidence seems to indicate that a bolide about 5 to 15 kilometers in diameter hit Earth in what is now the Yucatán Peninsula and created the Chicxulub crater.

platinum(Pt, Z=78)

Platinum is a very heavy, soft, malleable and ductile silvery white metal. It is named after the Spanish wordplatinum, which means "little silver" because it was first known (at least by Europeans) as an impractical silver-like metal found in some deposits along with gold. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 1 ppb, making it the 75th most common element. It occurs naturally as the free metal in an alloy with iridium called platinum-iridium and in the minerals cooperite [(Pt,Pd,Ni)S] and sperrillite [platinum arsenide, PtAs].2]

To bePlatinmetalleThey are ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium and platinum. These metals share many important physical and chemical properties and are often found in close proximity to each other in natural sources, often in an uncombined metallic form.

Platinum is extremely stable and resistant to corrosion. At 21.45 g/cm3, it has the third highest density of all known metals.3and a very high melting point of 1768°C. It is a very rare element with an abundance of about 1 ppb in the Earth's crust. Platinum was mined and processed by Native Americans in South America 2,000 years ago. Platinum is considered one of theyear preciososdue to its rarity, stability, high melting point and high gloss.

Platinum is used in jewelry, catalytic converters, laboratory instruments, medical and dental instruments, electrical contacts, electrodes for electrolysis, computer hardware (about 80% of all hard drives contain platinum), fiber optic cables, LCD screens and fuel cells. The standards for meters and kilograms, found at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Paris, France, are made of platinum alloyed with 10% iridium.

In organic synthesis, platinum is used to catalyze the reactions of alkenes (containing carbon-carbon double bonds) to alkanes (containing only carbon-carbon single bonds). The finely divided metal can adsorb alkene molecules and hydrogen gas on its surface, weakening the C=C bond and the H-H bond and releasing the alkane products when they react with each other.

In its compounds, the most common oxidation states of platinum are +2 and +4, but the +3 and +6 states are also known.

Cisplatin, PtCl2(N.H3)2, also known as Platinol, Peyrone Chloride and more formally ascis-Diamminodichloroplatinum(II) is used in the chemotherapy treatment of some types of cancer. It works by binding to stretches of DNA that contain two guanine units next to each other; Because it affects both healthy cells and cancer cells, it causes a number of side effects, but many of these side effects can be treated with other medications.

Hassio(Hs, Z=108)

Hassium is a synthetic element formed by the cold fusion of lead-208 and iron-58. Recently, the longest-lived isotope, Hassium-270 (Story) has a half-life of 30 seconds, which is much more stable than many of the transuranic elements. It was first manufactured in 1984 at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany and named after the German state of Hesse where GSI is located.

Meitner(Mt, Z=109)

Meitnerium is a synthetic element formed by the cold fusion of Bismuth-209 and Iron-58. The longest-lived isotope, Meitnerium-268, has a half-life of 0.07 seconds. It was first manufactured in 1982 at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany and named after Lise Meitner, the Austrian physicist who was a member of the research team that first observed nuclear fission in uranium and was the first to recognize the results. of his experiment which suggested that nuclear fission had taken place.

Darmstadter(Ds, Z=110).

Darmstadtium is a synthetic element created by bombarding lead-208 with nickel-62. The longest-lived isotope, darmstadtium-279, has a half-life of 180 milliseconds. It was first made at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany in 1994 and is named after the city where it was first made.

Group 1B (11)

Elements in Group 1B (Group 11 in the IUPAC designation) have the electronic configuration (norte-1)d10 ns1, instead of the expected (norte-1)d9 ns2; insided9 s2configuration ofdOrbitals are one electron away from being completely filled, one electron fromsoccupied orbital todorbital, leaving one electron in the valence shell. These metals normally form 1+ charges, so this group has historically been called 1B. Elements in this group are sometimes called "coin metals" because they were historically used in coins, although other metals have also been used in coins along with those in Group 1B.

copper(Myth, Z=29)

Copper is a malleable, ductile, reddish-brown metal. Its name derives from the Old English nametaxes, which in turn is derived from the Latin wordcopperfor "from the island of Cyprus", which was the main supplier of copper in the Mediterranean at the time of the Roman Empire. The symbol "Cu" is derivedcopper. Copper is not an extremely common element in the Earth's crust, with a concentration of only 50 ppm in the Earth's crust (making it the 26th most common element), but it is relatively easy to extract as it is highly concentrated in its minerals. Some of the copper is in the form of a pure metal with a purity of 99% or greater; Copper ores include chalcopyrite [CuFeS2], calcosine [Kupfer(I) sulfide, Cu2S], Covellita [Kupfer(II)sulfuro, CuS], Bornita [Cu5FeS4], copper [Kupfer(I) oxide, Cu2O], tenorite [copper(II) oxide, CuO], paramelaconite [a mixture of copper(I) and cupric oxides], chalcanthite [copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4·5 standard2O] and brocanthite [a mixture of copper(II) sulfate and copper(II) hydroxide, CuSO4·3Cu(OH)2], Malaquita [Kupfer(II)carbonathydroxide, Cu2CO3(OH)2] and azurite [a mixture of two parts copper(II) carbonate and one part copper(II) hydroxide, Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2].

Copper artifacts dating back to around 10,000 years have been found; Refining of copper ores began around 5000 BC. However, copper is a soft metal and is not unsuitable for making tools and weapons. The Bronze Age began around 3000 BC. when it was discovered that copper could be alloyed with tin (approximately two parts copper to one part tin).Bronze-🇧🇷 The resulting alloy was much stronger and could contain an edge.

Copper is a good conductor of heat and electricity and is commonly used in electrical wiring. It must be extremely pure for this use, as traces of other metals reduce electrical conductivity and increase resistance in copper wiring. Copper can be roasted and smelted from its ore to about 99% purity, but it's still not good enough to use as wire. The copper is further refined in an electrochemical process in which impure copper is used as the anode of the electrolytic cell and very pure copper foil is used as the cathode. Copper is oxidized to Cu at the anode.2+The ions that dissolved in the electrolyte solution and are reduced at the cathode are deposited on the electrode as metallic copper with a purity greater than 99.6%. Other easily oxidized metal ions such as Zn2+sim2+they remain in the electrolyte solution and the metals that are less easily oxidized fall to the bottom of the cell as "anodic sludge", which contains "impurities" such as silver, gold and platinum.

Copper was commonly used to make cookware such as frying pans and teapots, but this use is less common today as cheaper aluminum or stainless steel cookware is widely available. Many high-quality pots and pans are made with a copper base, which distributes stove heat quickly and evenly throughout the pan.

Because copper resists corrosion from water, air, and most acids (except concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids), it is ideal for making coins. The United States penny, the penny, was formerly made of solid copper (or alloyed copper with tin, nickel, or zinc), but due to rising copper prices, it was replaced in 1982 by a coin. with zinc core. surrounded by a thin copper coating (about 2.4% of the coin's mass). [An interesting chemical demonstration can be done with these types of coins: if the copper on the edge of the coin is ground to expose the zinc and the coin is immersed in hydrochloric acid, the zinc will undergo a simple displacement reaction with the hydrochloric acid and dissolve. in solution as soluble zinc chloride, ZnCl2, while the copper on the front and back of the coin has not been touched, leaving two thin pieces of copper foil that still bear the impressions of Lincoln's head and the Lincoln Memorial.] The United States five-cent coin, nickel, is a alloy of 75% copper and 25% nickel; and the penny (the penny) and twenty-five (the quarter) are 91.67% copper and 8.33% nickel. The Sacajawea US dollar coin, first issued in November 1999, is also made primarily of copper (88.5% copper, 6% zinc, 3.5% manganese and 2% nickel).

Copper is also commonly used in plumbing and water pipes, motors and generators, computer circuits and chips, household accessories, kitchenware, tableware (such as sterling silver, which is an alloy of silver with 7.5% copper or other metal), in ceramics and colored enamels. glass, as well as musical instruments (mainly brass ones).

Copper is also widely used in sculpture. The Statue of Liberty consists of 81.3 tons of copper plates mounted on a steel skeleton. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Colossus of Rhodes was a 33 meter high bronze statue of the Greek god Helios on the island of Rhodes which stood at the entrance to the port of Mandraki; It was 280 B.C. Completed in 224 BC. destroyed by an earthquake.

Copper is used in the manufacture of several important metal alloys.BronzeIt is an alloy of copper and tin.dirtyIt is an alloy of copper and zinc, which is also harder than copper and can be polished to a deep golden shine.Rotguss(also known as gunmetal) is an alloy of copper, tin, and zinc strong enough to make guns and cannons.kupfernickel(also called monel metal) is an alloy of copper and nickel commonly used in coins such as the US 5 cent piece and in shipbuilding. Copper-nickel alloys are also used in desalination plants and submersible pumps because they resist corrosion from seawater.the source of aluminum oxideThey are alloys of copper and up to 7% aluminum that have a golden luster and are highly resistant to corrosion. They are used in ship architecture, ship engine parts, and landing gear components.

The most common oxidation states of iron are Cu+, copper(I) or copper-Cu ion2+, copper(II) or copper ion. Copper (II) sulfate, CuSO4, is white in the anhydrous form and dark blue when complexed with water in the pentahydrate form of CuSO4·5 standard2O. This material, sometimes called vitrol blue, is used in fungicides and algaecides, as well as paint pigments. Copper(II) chloride, CuCl2, is used as a dye fixer in the textile industry. Copper(II) acetate, Cu(C2H3o2)2Verdigris, also known as verdigris, forms when copper is exposed to air and seawater for an extended period of time; It is often used as a green pigment in oil paints.

Copper is essential in the diet, as it is part of several enzymes in the body, such as: B. CytochromeCOxidase required for energy production. Copper is abundant in foods such as shellfish (especially shellfish), lamb, duck, pork and beef, almonds, walnuts, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, mushrooms and bran. The minimum amount of copper needed in the diet is approximately 1.2 mg per day, but a typical diet can provide up to 6 mg per day.

Some molluscs (such as oysters) and some arthropods (such as horseshoe crabs) use hemocyanin to transport oxygen to their cells. In this protein complex, a copper(I) ion is held in place by histidine clusters; molecular oxygen complexes with copper ion to form a blue copper(II) oxygen complex. (At theStar Trek, Vulcan blood was green because it had a copper base).

(Video) The Periodic Table: Crash Course Chemistry #4

plata(Ag, Z=47)

Silver is a soft, ductile, malleable, silvery (duh) metal. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon word for metal,sulfur🇧🇷 its chemical symbol Ag is derived from the Latin name for silver,plata-🇧🇷 Silver is a fairly rare element with a concentration of 70 ppb in the Earth's crust, making it the 66th most common element. Occurs in argentite and acanthite ores [both silver sulfide, Ag2S], stephanite [silver antimony sulfide, Ag5SbS4], corneal silver [silver chloride, AgCl], silver arsenide [Ag3As], bromyrite [AgBr] and cerargyrite [AgCl]. However, most silver is obtained as a by-product of refining other metals.

Silver was known to many ancient civilizations, but since it is not mined from the earth as a pure metal, it has not been used as long as gold. Silver was first minted around 3000 BC. and it is widely used in coinage, although silver coins are too soft to be very durable.

Silver is the metal that best conducts electricity and heat, being of great importance in the electronics industry. The metal is extremely malleable and ductile: one gram of silver can be stretched into a wire almost two kilometers long. Silver is stable against water and oxygen, but forms silver sulfide, Ag2S when exposed to sulfur compounds in the air; this forms a black layer (tarnish) on the silver that must be cleaned off periodically. Silver is considered one of theyear preciososdue to its rarity, stability, high melting point and high gloss.

Silver is widely used in the electronics industry in switches, circuits and electronic devices (such as computer keyboards). It is also used in cutlery, jewelry and mirrors.Sterling silverIt is an alloy of 93% silver and 7% copper that is commonly used in cutlery. Dentists use silver, tin, and mercury amalgams to fill cavities.

In its compounds, silver is typically in the +1 oxidation state, but some +2 and +3 compounds are also known. silver nitrate, AgNO3, is used in photographic emulsions, as well as silver bromide, AgBr, silver chloride, AgCl, and silver iodide, AgI. Silver iodide is used to seed clouds to encourage rain.

Colloidal silver is a suspension of silver used in "alternative" medicine as an antibiotic. However, prolonged use or overdose of colloidal silver can lead to a condition called colloidal silver.Argyrie, in which silver is deposited in tissues throughout the body, and the skin takes on a gray-blue color. While not harmful in itself, it is disfiguring and reversing the condition may not be possible.

gold(Au, Z=79)

Gold is a soft, malleable yellow metal. It is an extremely rare element with a concentration of 1 ppb in the Earth's crust, making it the 73rd most common element. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon language, while the chemical symbol "Au" is derived from the Latin name for the metal,Aurum("Bright Dawn"). It is often found as a free element in the form of nuggets or grains and in alluvial deposits and is associated with some sulfide minerals and is also found in the mineral sylvanite [silver-gold telluride, (Ag, Au)Te2].

Gold has been used by humans for thousands of years. As loose gold can be mined directly from the ground (or by washing streams and rivers) and because of its relatively low melting point (1064ºC) It was one of the first metals discovered and was widely used to make jewelry, coins and other artifacts. The desire for gold encouraged ancient alchemists to figure out how to make the "philosopher's stone", which would allow them to transform base metals like lead into gold. They never understood (except maybe forNicolas Flamel, in the Harry Potter books by J. K. Rowling), collected many empirical observations that led to the development of the science of chemistry.

Gold is extremely inert: the only acids that dissolve gold arereal water("Rei das Águas", a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and nitric acid) and selenic acid, H2SeO4🇧🇷 Gold is extremely malleable and malleable: a thin film with an area of ​​​​one square meter and a thickness of 50 nanometers from one gram of gold can be beaten. Gold is also a great conductor of electricity, making it useful for electrical connections. The oceans contain about 10 million tons of gold, but at such a low concentration, about 10 parts per thousand, it is impractical to mine. Gold, like silver, is considered one of theyear preciososdue to its rarity and stability.

Gold is widely used in jewelry (accounting for about 75% of all gold produced), gold bars (bulk precious metals) and electronics. In some large buildings thin layers of gold are used to radiate heat; The Mylar film that covers the skin of some spacecraft is also covered with gold leaf for the same reason.

The purity of gold is measured in units called units.Carat🇧🇷 Pure gold is 24 carats. An alloy with 92% gold is 22k (92% of 24), 18k gold is 75% gold, 12k is 50% gold, and so on. Gold in jewelry is usually mixed with silver or copper, with a small amount of zinc to harden it. Gold can have different colors depending on the metal it is alloyed with: white gold contains 10% nickel, red gold contains 50% copper, blue gold contains 54% indium, purple gold contains 20% aluminum, green gold ( also known as electro) contains 27% silver and black gold contains 25% cobalt.

In its compounds, gold usually occurs in the +1 or +3 oxidation states; Oh+is known as the gold (I) or gold ion and Au3+it is known as gold(III) or aurion.

Gold salts are used in some arthritis treatments when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are ineffective. Since the accumulation of gold in the body has side effects, this type of treatment can only be used for a few years. Gold is also used in dentistry to fill cavities and make crowns; Gold is alloyed with silver, palladium and zinc to harden the amalgam. More than 60 tons of gold are consumed this way each year.

bone scan(Rg, Z=111).

Roentgenium is a synthetic element formed by bombarding bismuth-209 with nickel-64. The longest-lived isotope, Roentgen-280, has a half-life of 3.6 seconds. It was first manufactured at GSI in Darmstadt in 1994 and named after Wilhelm Roentgen, the discoverer of X-rays.

Group 2B (12)

Elements in Group 2B (Group 12 in the IUPAC designation) have the electronic configuration (norte-1)d10 ns2🇧🇷 These metals normally form 2+ charges, so historically this group was called 2B (or not 2B, that is the question).

zinc(Zn, Z=30)

Zinc is a very hard, bluish-white metal. The name derives from the German word for metal,zinc, which in turn may come from the Persian word for stone,sing🇧🇷 It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 75 ppm, making it the 24th most common element. It is found in the minerals sphalerite, zinc mixture or wurtzite [zinc sulfide, ZnS], smithsonite or zinc spar [zinc carbonate, ZnCO].3], hemimorphite or calamine [zinc silicate hydroxide, Zn4y2o7(OH)2·H2O], hydrostimulates the efflorescence of zinc [zinc hydroxide carbonate, Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] e franklinita [(Fe,Mn,Zn)(Fe,Mn)2o4].

Zinc compounds have been known and used in medical treatment for many thousands of years. Metallic zinc was mined in India as early as 1300 BC. It was refined and used to make brass by mixing copper with zinc minerals such as calamine, but it wasn't recognized as an element until the mid-18th century.

Zinc tarnishes in air and forms a layer of zinc oxide. It has a low melting point (419°C) and boiling point (907°C). Zinc is ductile between 100°C and 210°C, but becomes brittle above this range.

Zinc is the fourth most used metal after iron, aluminum and copper. It is mainly used to coat ("galvanize") iron or steel, forming a protective layer that preferentially oxidizes rather than iron. Since 1982, the US penny consists primarily of zinc (about 97.6% of the weight of a penny) surrounded by a thin layer of copper (see copper entry above). Zinc is also used in the manufacture of automotive engine and body parts, household appliances, and in the manufacture of brass (an alloy of 67% copper and 33% zinc). Other zinc alloys include German silver (20% zinc, 60% copper, 20% nickel), commonly used in tableware, and Prestal (78% zinc, 22% aluminum), which is nearly as strong as steel but easy to clean. to work. mold. 🇧🇷 Zinc forms the anodic component of dry and alkaline cells; Despite not being rechargeable, they are still widely used because they are cheap.

In most of its compounds, zinc is present in the +2 oxidation state. Zinc oxide, ZnO, is an insoluble white powder used in white paints and watercolors, as well as in pharmaceutical ointments such as diaper rash medication and calamine lotion, a mixture of zinc and iron oxides. Zinc oxide is used in some sunscreens and sunscreens to protect the skin from harmful UVB rays. Zinc sulfide, ZnS, is used as a white pigment in fluorescent paints and combines with barium sulfide to form a white pigment called lithophone; It is also used in scintillation detectors as it emits light when excited by X-rays or electrons. zinc dichromate, ZnCr2o7, is an orange-red pigment. zinc chromate, ZnCrO4, is a bright yellow pigment.

Zinc is non-toxic and is an essential nutrient in the diet because it is used in many proteins and enzymes in the body. A particularly important one is carbonic anhydrase, which is responsible for transporting carbon dioxide in vertebrates. Zinc-rich foods include oysters, red meat, herring, beans, nuts, cheese, whole wheat and whole grain breads, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, maple syrup and bran.

Cadmium(Cd, Z=48)

Cadmium is a soft, malleable silvery metal. Its name comes from the Greek wordCadmium, the ancient Greek name for calamine, a zinc carbonate (ZnCO3🇧🇷 Cadmium was first observed as an impurity in some calamine minerals. It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 0.1 ppm, making it the 65th most common element. It occurs in the minerals greenockite [cadmium sulfide, CdS], cadmoselite [cadmium selenide, CdSe] and otavita [cadmium carbonate, CdCO].3], but it is mainly obtained as a by-product of the extraction of zinc ores.

Cadmium is used in the galvanizing of steel, which is particularly useful in preventing corrosion on marine vessels and in the manufacture of bearings. It is primarily used in nickel cadmium (NiCad) batteries, where it serves as the anode (see also nickel entry above). Cadmium can absorb neutrons and is used in control rods that regulate nuclear reactions in fission plants.

Cadmium occurs mainly in its compounds in the +2 oxidation state. Cadmium compounds are used in color pigments to create a variety of intense colors such as cadmium yellow (cadmium sulfide, CdS) and cadmium red (cadmium selenide, CdSe).

Small amounts of cadmium can be eliminated from the body but can accumulate in the liver and kidneys. Exposure to large amounts of cadmium is toxic, in part because it interferes with the action of zinc-containing enzymes.

Mercury(Hg, Z=80)

Mercury is a very dense, heavy, silvery-white metal, liquid at room temperature. Mercury is also known as "Quicksilver". It is named after the Roman god Mercury (Hermes in Greek mythology), who was the swift messenger of the gods; the chemical symbol "Hg" is derived from the Latin name of the metal,hydragyro, "liquid silver". It occurs in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 50 ppb, making it the 68th most common element. It is found in the minerals cinnabar [mercury(II) sulfide, HgS], livingstonite [antimony mercury sulfide, HgSb].4S8] and lamb [Ed.3S2Kl2]

Mercury is an unusual metal in many ways. It is the only commonly encountered metal that is liquid at room temperature and has a melting point of -38.83 °C. Frozen mercury looks like lead. It has a boiling point of 356.73°C, which means that when mercury compounds get too hot, some of the toxic metal can vaporize. It also has a very high density of 13.534 g cm-3🇧🇷 Mercury is a poor conductor of heat but a good conductor of electricity. It has a high coefficient of expansion and also expands and contracts with changes in temperature. This, along with the fact that it barely adheres to glass, makes mercury an ideal liquid for gauges such as thermometers, barometers, and sphygmomanometers (sphygmomanometers). Mercury forms alloys with various metals; these are commonly known as amalgams.

Mercury compounds in the form of cinnabar and other minerals have been used for thousands of years. Metallic mercury has been around since at least 1600 BC. knowledge. Some alchemists believed that mercury was the key to discovering how to transform base metals into gold, but these investigations proved fruitless (at least from the point of view of actual gold production).

Mercury, in the form of mercury(II) oxide, MgO, is used in small zinc-mercury button cells used in hearing aids and other small devices. Mercury is also used in fluorescent light bulbs, electrical switches, and dental amalgams (usually with silver and tin, although modern amalgams often substitute mercury for copper).

Mercury occurs in its compounds in the +1 and +2 oxidation states. Mercury(I) or mercury ion is actually a diatomic ion with the formula Hg22+, while mercury(II) or mercury ion is a monatomic Hg2+Ion. (Zinc and cadmium can also form monovalent diatomic cations [i.e., M22+], but the edit+—Hg+The bond is much stronger than Zn.+—Zn+bono ol cd+-CD+bonds, and the monovalent Zn and Cd cations do not play an important role).

Mercury (I) chloride, Hg2Kl2, also known as calomel, is a heavy white powder that was formerly used as a diuretic and laxative. It is not very water soluble, so very little mercury is absorbed by the body, but as mercury accumulates in the body, the effects of mercury toxicity can build up over time. It has also been used as a fungicide and insecticide and to treat syphilis. Mercury(II) sulfide, HgS, also called cinnabar, is found in the minerals cinnabar and metacinnabar. It has a distinct reddish color used in some color pigments. Some of the pigments found in cave paintings dating back 30,000 years contain mercury(II) sulfide. Thimerosal is an organic compound that contains mercury and is used as a preservative in some vaccines; There has been some concern that the mercury in this compound is linked to some cases of childhood autism, although there isn't much medical evidence to support this.

Mercury poisoning causes severe headaches and nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea; Over time, fatigue, weakness, memory loss, insomnia, depression, and paranoia may develop. The expression "mad as a hatter" (and the Mad Hatter character inAlice in Wonderland) derives from symptoms of mercury poisoning exhibited by persons in the hat industry who have used solutions of mercury(II) nitrate dihydrate, Hg (NO3)22 hours2Oh, to turn rabbit and beaver fur into felt. Organic mercury compounds such as methylmercury [CH3Hg]+, and dimethylmercury, (CH3)2Hg, are particularly toxic because they are extremely volatile and readily cross the blood-brain barrier.

One of them(Uub, Z=112).

Ununbium is a synthetic element created by fusing an isotope of zinc with an isotope of lead. "Ununbiium" is a temporary systematic name (literally "1" "1" "2", the atomic number of the element) until the official name is established. The first isotope produced, Ununbium-277, has a half-life of 0.28 milliseconds. It was first manufactured in 1996 at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany.


F. Albert Cotton e Geoffrey Wilkinson,Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5th edition New York: John Wiley & Sons,

John Emsley,The elements, 3. Editing. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

(Video) The periodic table - classification of elements | Chemistry | Khan Academy

John Emsley,Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

David L. Heiserman,Investigation of chemical elements and their compounds.. Nova York: TAB Books, 1992.


What is the periodic table answers? ›

Of course, the most basic question is “What is the periodic table?” The simple answer is that it is a chart that shows all of the chemical elements and basic facts about them, that orders the elements by increasing atomic number and common properties.

What are the parts of periodic table? ›

The rows of the periodic table are called periods. All elements within a period share the same highest electron energy level. The columns of the periodic table are called groups. All elements in a group share the same number of valence electrons.

What are the 7 sections of the periodic table? ›

Families of the Periodic Table. On the periodic table, there are families which are groups of elements with similar properties. These families are alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, post-transition metals, metalloids, halogens, noble metals, and noble gases.

How do you remember the first 20 elements in a sentence? ›

Happy Henry Lives Beside Boron Cottage, Near Our Friend Nelly Nancy Mg Allen. Silly Patrick Stays Close. Arthur Kisses Carrie.

What are the 12 elements of the periodic table? ›

The Elements, sorted by Atomic Number
Atomic NumberSymbolName
76 more rows

How is the periodic table arranged answer key? ›

The chemical elements are arranged from left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number, or the number of protons in an atom's nucleus, which generally coincides with increasing atomic mass.

What are the 4 main parts of the periodic table? ›

The table is divided into four roughly rectangular areas called blocks. The rows of the table are called periods, and the columns are called groups. Elements from the same group of the periodic table show similar chemical characteristics.

What are the 8 main groups of the periodic table? ›

Name of the eight groups in the periodic table:
  • Alkali metals.
  • Alkaline earth metals.
  • Rare earth metals.
  • Crystallogens.
  • Pnictogens.
  • Chalcogens.
  • Halogens.
  • Noble gases.

What are the 10 main elements of the periodic table? ›

Answer: The first ten elements of the periodic table are hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and neon.

What are the 7 rows in the periodic table called? ›

The elements are arranged in seven horizontal rows, called periods or series, and 18 vertical columns, called groups.

What are the group of 7 elements called? ›

Group 7 contains non-metal elements placed in a vertical column on the right of the periodic table . The elements in group 7 are called the halogens .

What is the easiest way to memorize the periodic table? ›

1. Repetition - How to Memorize the Periodic Table Slowly
  1. Memorize chunks of five elements at a time. You'll have 23 separate groups of five to learn, with a few left over. ...
  2. Recite the element names out loud. ...
  3. Space out your learning sessions. ...
  4. Aim to overlearn.

How do you learn the periodic table trick? ›

Memorization Strategies
  1. Break down the table into sections. ...
  2. Spread out the memorization process. ...
  3. Learn the elements in a song. ...
  4. Make nonsense words made from element symbols. ...
  5. Use color to learn element groups. ...
  6. Use a mnemonic device to help remember the order of the elements.
Feb 15, 2019

How to learn elements from 1 to 30 easily? ›

If we are talking about the first 30 elements then the periodic table starts with Hydrogen and ends at Zinc that is an element with atomic number 30. These elements can be remembered by this line: Harley Health Like Beautiful Body of Cheetah Name Opposite Falcon Nest.

What are the 24 essential elements? ›

Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, chlorine, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, and nickel. Other elements that have been proposed as candidates for essential or beneficial elements include chromium, vanadium, and titanium, although strong evidence is lacking at this time.

What are the 20 essential elements? ›

Lithium, Beryllium, Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Potassium, and Calcium are metals in the first twenty elements. Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Chlorine, and Argon are the non-metals in the first twenty elements.

What are 118 elements called? ›

The permanent names for elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 are nihonium, moscovium, tennessine, and oganesson.

How is the periodic table organized as in what order? ›

A modern periodic table arranges the elements in increasing order of their atomic numbers and groups atoms with similar properties in the same vertical column (Figure 3.2. 2). Each box represents an element and contains its atomic number, symbol, average atomic mass, and (sometimes) name.

Why and how elements are arranged in a period short answer? ›

In a period the elements are arranged in the increasing order of nuclear charge, increasing order of number of electrons and increasing order of atomic number.

How will you describe the arrangement of the periodic table? ›

All the elements of the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing atomic (proton) number. The table was named the periodic table because similar properties occur at regular intervals. Elements with similar properties are in columns called groups. Elements to the left of this line are metals.

What are the 3 main types of elements on the periodic table? ›

Group and Periods of the Periodic Table of Elements. The three major groups on the Periodic Table are the metals, nonmetals and metalloids. Elements within each group have similar physical and chemical properties.

How many elements are there? ›

Since then, the periodic table has evolved to reflect over 150 years of scientific development and understanding in chemistry and physics. Today, with 118 known elements, it is widely regarded as one of the most significant achievements in science.

What is the name of 16 group elements? ›

oxygen group element, also called chalcogen, any of the six chemical elements making up Group 16 (VIa) of the periodic classification—namely, oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), polonium (Po), and livermorium (Lv).

What are the 14 groups of the periodic table? ›

The group 14 elements are the second group in the p-block of the periodic table. It is also called the carbon group.
The members of this group are:
  • Carbon (C)
  • Silicon (Si)
  • Germanium (Ge)
  • Tin (Sn)
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Flerovium (Fl)
Dec 31, 2019

What are the 5 most important elements? ›

Classification of the Essential Elements

Note that most living matter consists primarily of the so-called bulk elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur—the building blocks of the compounds that constitute our organs and muscles.

What are the 36 elements? ›

Names & Symbols for the first 36 elements
Names & Symbols for the first 36 elements
carbon = atomic number 6 Cargon = atomic number 18 Ar
nitrogen = atomic number 7 Npotassium = atomic number 19 K
oxygen = atomic number 8 Ocalcium = atomic number 20 Ca
fluorine = atomic number 9 Fscandium = atomic number 21 Sc
8 more rows

What are the 6 most common elements? ›

The elements that are present in the highest quantities in living organisms are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. These elements make up about 99% of their living mass.

What is the basic of the periodic table? ›

The periodic table is a tabular array of the chemical elements organized by atomic number, from the element with the lowest atomic number, hydrogen, to the element with the highest atomic number, oganesson. The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element.

What are Group 10 elements called? ›

Group 10, numbered by current IUPAC style, is the group of chemical elements in the periodic table that consists of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and darmstadtium (Ds). All are d-block transition metals.

What are the 18 groups in periodic table? ›

Groups are numbered 1–18 from left to right. The elements in group 1 are known as the alkali metals; those in group 2 are the alkaline earth metals; those in 15 are the pnictogens; those in 16 are the chalcogens; those in 17 are the halogens; and those in 18 are the noble gases.

What is the 1st row in the periodic table called? ›

A period 1 element is one of the chemical elements in the first row (or period) of the periodic table of the chemical elements.

Are there 7 or 8 groups in the periodic table? ›

In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements. There are 18 numbered groups in the periodic table; the 14 f-block columns, between groups 2 and 3, are not numbered.

What are the group 0 elements called? ›

The elements in group 0 are called the noble gases . They exist as single atoms .

What is group 1 called? ›

The Group 1 elements are called the alkali metals. They are placed in the vertical column on the left-hand side of the periodic table . All the Group 1 elements are very reactive . They must be stored under oil to keep air and water away from them.

What is Group 2 called? ›

The elements of group - 2 are called alkaline earth metals because because their oxides and hydroxides are alkaline in nature and these metal oxides are found in the earth's crust.

How do you remember the 6 elements of a period? ›

D-block elements it includes are Lutetium (Lu), Hafnium (Hf), Tantalum (Ta), Tungsten (W), Rhenium (Re), Osmium (Os), Iridium (Ir), Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au) and Mercury (Hg). Mnemonic for Period 6: L(u)a HafTa Warna Reh Us(Os) Irritating Popat ke saath Aur Hoj(g)a pagal.

Who is the youngest person to memorize the periodic table? ›

Devansh Singhal of Delhi born on August 28, 2003 has memorized the complete periodic table.

Is it worth memorizing the periodic table? ›

Memorizing the periodic table is important because it is organized and gives a lot of information about elements. Also, it makes students understand how elements relate to one another. It is used to predict the properties of every element.

Is D and F Block easy? ›

It consist of two series-Lanthanides and Actinides. Studying the properties of lanthanides and actinides together makes it difficult. It is hard to draw a clear demarcation between the two without any confusion.

Do students have to memorize the periodic table? ›

Students don't need to memorise the periodic table. The periodic table is the chemist's alphabet, and we need to be very familiar with it. By putting the elements together in various combinations, as we do when we spell words, we can build our dictionary, containing all the substances in the universe.

What grade do you have to memorize the periodic table? ›

In many school districts, the periodic table is first taught as part of fifth-grade science. This is primarily an introduction to the periodic table and the elements, which students study in more depth in later grades.

How do you memorize the periodic table short tricks? ›

However, you don't need to memorize the synthetic elements, which are the elements from atomic numbers 104 to 118.
Mnemonics for Periodic Table in English.
Groups/PeriodsMnemonics for Periodic Table in EnglishPeriodic Table Elements
Group 13B A G I TB, Al, Ga, In, Ti
12 more rows
Mar 30, 2022

Is Element 123 possible? ›

Unbitrium (pronounced /uːnˈbaɪtriəm/), also known as eka-protactinium or element 123, is the possible chemical element in the periodic table that has the temporary symbol Ubt and has the atomic number 123. Calculations have shown that 326Ubt would be the most stable isotope.

What is periodic table explain? ›

The periodic table of chemical elements, often called the periodic table, organizes all discovered chemical elements in rows (called periods) and columns (called groups) according to increasing atomic number.

What is the periodic table quizlet? ›

periodic Table. a table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure (and hence similar chemical properties) appear in vertical columns. Element.

What is the periodic table explained for kids? ›

The periodic table is a system for arranging the chemical elements. The chemical elements are the basic substances that make up all matter. Each chemical element has a particular feature called its atomic number. That number comes from the amount of tiny particles called protons in each atom of the element.

What is periodic explain? ›

: occurring or recurring at regular intervals. : occurring repeatedly from time to time. : consisting of or containing a series of repeated stages, processes, or digits : cyclic. periodic decimals. a periodic vibration.

How to memorize the periodic table? ›

1. Repetition - How to Memorize the Periodic Table Slowly
  1. Memorize chunks of five elements at a time. You'll have 23 separate groups of five to learn, with a few left over. ...
  2. Recite the element names out loud. ...
  3. Space out your learning sessions. ...
  4. Aim to overlearn.

How can I learn the periodic table easily? ›

Memorization Strategies
  1. Break down the table into sections. ...
  2. Spread out the memorization process. ...
  3. Learn the elements in a song. ...
  4. Make nonsense words made from element symbols. ...
  5. Use color to learn element groups. ...
  6. Use a mnemonic device to help remember the order of the elements.
Feb 15, 2019

What is the periodic table 7th grade? ›

The periodic table is an organized arrangement of the chemical elements, in order of their atomic number (number of protons), electron configurations, and their chemical properties. This ordering segregates elements according to their periodic trends that are elements with similar behavior in the same column.

What is an element 5th grade? ›

Element: A substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance. 3. Compounds: A substance made up of two or more elements that are chemically combined.

What is the periodic table 6th grade? ›

The periodic table is a simple tabular arrangement of the elements, organized by atomic number, electron configuration and recurring chemical properties. The periodic table is widely used in chemistry and has proved useful in understanding more about elements and their properties.

How many groups are in the periodic table? ›

The s-, p-, and d-block elements of the periodic table are arranged into 18 numbered columns, or groups. The elements in each group have the same number of valence electrons.

Why is it called periodic table? ›

Why is the periodic table called the periodic table? It is called the periodic table because of the way the elements are arranged. You'll notice they're in rows and columns. The horizontal rows (which go from left to right) are called 'periods' and the vertical columns (going from up to down) are called 'groups'.


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